47.Which of the following leads to the production of urea?
a.Oxidation of glucose
b.Oxidation of amino acids
c.Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
d.Synthesis of protein from amino acids
48.When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?
c.Fat and carbohydrate only
d.Fat, carbohydrate, and protein
49.If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body’s needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?
50.When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecules is
a.stored as fat only.
b.excreted in the feces.
c.stored as amino acids only.
d.stored as glycogen and fat.
51.What are the products from the complete oxidation of fatty acids?
a.Urea and acetone
b.Fatty acids and glycerol
c.Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
d.Water, carbon dioxide, and energy
52.In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?
a.Water and carbon dioxide
b.Carbon, hydrogen, and urea
c.Indigestible fiber and nitrogen
d.Monosaccharides and amino acids
53.Which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or electron transport chain?
54.At what point is oxygen used in the electron transport chain?
a.At the end
b.At every step
c.At the beginning
d.When ATP is synthesized
55.Products from the electron transport chain pathway include all of the following except
56.Which of the following accounts for the higher energy density of a fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients?
a.Fatty acids have a lower percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
b.Fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds
c.Other energy-yielding nutrients have a lower percentage of oxygen-carbon bonds
nutrients undergo fewer metabolic reactions, thereby lowering the energy
57.The number of ATP molecules that can be produced from a molecule of protein, fat, or carbohydrate is generally related to the number of atoms of
58.Approximately how many molecules of ATP are generated from the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose?
59.Approximately how many ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of a molecule of palmitic acid?
Section 7.3 Energy Balance
60.Which of the following can be synthesized from all three energy-yielding nutrients?
61.Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the body’s higher metabolic efficiency of converting a molecule of corn oil into stored fat compared with a molecule of sucrose?
a.The enzymes specific for metabolizing absorbed fat have been found to have higher activities than those metabolizing sucrose
b.The absorbed corn oil is transported to fat cells at a faster rate than the absorbed sucrose, thereby favoring the uptake of corn oil fat
c.There are fewer metabolic reactions for disassembling the corn oil and re-assembling the parts into a triglyceride for uptake by the fat cells
energy content of corn oil is higher than sucrose, conversion of these
nutrients into stored fat requires a smaller percentage of the energy
from the corn oil
62.If a person consumes 100 kcalories in excess of energy needs from table sugar, approximately how many of the kcalories are stored in the body?
63.If a person consumes 100 kcalories in excess of energy needs from olive oil, approximately what percentage of the kcalories are stored in the body?
64.Jake is getting ready for spring training and is sitting down to a dinner of half a chicken, a rib-eye steak, black beans, and 5 slices of bacon. He has been eating typical dinners like this for about a month and has since gained 7 pounds, while exercising only briefly. When Jake asks why he doesn’t see an increase in his biceps or abs, the proper response should be
a.dietary protein alone does not contribute to muscle accretion.
b.it takes at least 6 months to document changes in muscle accretion.